What is robots.txt?

Search engines play a crucial role in helping users find the information they seek in the vast expanse of the internet. As a website owner or webmaster, controlling how search engines interact with your site is essential. This is where the robots.txt file comes into play. This comprehensive guide will explore the purpose, functionality, and best practices of using robots.txt to manage search engine crawling.

Robots.txt is a simple text file that resides in the root directory of your website. Its primary purpose is communicating with web crawling bots, such as search engine spiders, to inform them which parts of your site they can access and index. By doing so, you can prevent certain pages or sections from appearing in search engine results, ensuring that only the most relevant and valuable content is visible to users.

The Structure of Robots.txt

Basic Syntax

The syntax of a robots.txt file is straightforward. It consists of two key components: the user-agent and the disallow directive.

  1. User-agent: Specifies the web crawler to which the rule applies. You can target a specific bot (e.g., Googlebot) or use an asterisk (*) as a wildcard to apply the rule to all crawlers.
  2. Disallow: Indicates the URL path that you want to block from crawling. An empty value (Disallow: ) means that all content is allowed.


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User-agent: * Disallow: /private/

In this example, all user agents are instructed not to crawl URLs starting with «/private/.»

Advanced Directives

Beyond the basic allow and disallow directives, robots.txt can include other instructions to refine crawler behaviour:

  1. Allow: Explicitly permits crawling a specific URL or directory, even if a broader disallow rule exists.
  2. Crawl-delay: Sets the delay between successive crawl requests to prevent server overload. Note that not all crawlers respect this directive.

Best Practices for Using Robots.txt

  • Place in the Root Directory: Ensure your file is located in the top-level directory of your site (e.g., www.example.com/robots.txt) so crawlers can easily find it.
  • Use With Caution: Incorrect usage of robots.txt can block important content from being indexed. Always review your rules carefully.
  • Specify Sitemaps: Include the location of your XML sitemap(s) at the end of the robots.txt file to help search engines discover and index your content more efficiently.
  • Keep It Public: Remember that robots.txt is publicly accessible. Avoid using it to hide sensitive information, as anyone can easily view it.
  • Regularly Update: As your site evolves, update your robots.txt file to reflect changes in your content structure and indexing preferences.

Common Use Cases

  1. Preventing Duplicate Content: Use robots.txt to block access to duplicate pages, ensuring that only the original version is indexed.
  2. Excluding Private Sections: Keep private areas of your site (e.g., admin panels or staging environments) out of search results by disallowing their directories.
  3. Managing Crawl Budget: For large sites, use it to prioritise the crawling of essential pages and conserve server resources.

Robots.txt and SEO

While robots.txt is a powerful tool for managing crawler access, it’s essential to use it judiciously to avoid unintended SEO consequences. Blocking important pages can lead to missed opportunities for ranking and visibility. Conversely, allowing search engines to crawl and index relevant, high-quality content can enhance your site’s search performance.


Robots.txt plays a crucial role in a website’s SEO strategy, providing a means to control how search engines engage with your content. Implementing and understanding its directives ensures efficient site crawling, allowing only the most relevant pages to be indexed. Our Technical SEO services include a thorough review and regular updates to your robots.txt file. This ensures it aligns with your evolving website structure and SEO objectives, helping to maximise your site’s visibility and performance in search engine results.

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